Simultaneous ground and satellite observations of an isolated proton arc at subauroral latitudes
Donovan, Eric F.
Rich, F. J.
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We observed an isolated proton arc at the Athabasca station MLAT: 62◦N) in Canada on 5 September, 2005, using a ground-based allsky imager at wavelengths of 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm, and 486.1 nm (Hβ). This arc is similar to the detached proton arc observed recently by the IMAGE satellite [Immel et al., 2002]. The arc appeared at 0500-0700 UT (2100-2300 MLT) coincident with strong Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave. A small substorm took place at 0550 UT, while the isolated arc did not change its structure and intensity before and after the substorm onset. From particle data obtained by the NOAA 17 satellite, we found that the isolated arc was located in the localized (L ∼4) enhancement of ion precipitation fluxes at an energy range of 30-80 keV. Trapped ion flux enhancements (ring current ions) were also observed at two latitudinally separated regions. The localized ion precipitation was located at the outer boundary of the inner ring current ions. The DMSP F13 satellite observed signatures of ionospheric plasma trough near the conjugate point of the arc in the southern hemisphere. The trough is considered to be connected to the plasmapause. These results indicate that the source region of the isolated arc was located near the plasmapause and in the ring current. We conclude that the observed isolated proton arc at subauroral latitudes were driven by the EMIC waves, which were generated near the plasmapause and scattered the ring current protons resonantly into the loss cone.