Associations between sitting time and health-related quality of life and psychosocial health among older men
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Population based objective assessments (i.e., accelerometers) indicate that older men (>60 years) have the highest levels of sedentary time with approximately 60% of their waking time engaged in sedentary behavior. Sedentary time has been linked to mortality, type 2 diabetes, and cardio-metabolic markers. No studies have evaluated sedentary time and multidimensional HRQoL among older men. The purpose of this study was to determine associations of total sitting time with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among older men. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, older aged men 55 years of age and older from Alberta, Canada completed a mailed survey that assessed HRQoL (RAND-12). Sitting time was assessed using five items validated by Marshall et al. (2010). Participants were asked to estimate how much time they spent sitting each day in the following situations; a) while traveling to and from places, b) while at work, c) while watching television, d) while using a computer at home, and e) at leisure not including television, separately for weekday and weekend. The primary model assessed the association between total sitting time as the independent variable of interest and our dependent variables of interest (physical, mental, and global health component scores of the RAND12). Results: Participants (N=375) averaged 9.3 hours (SD=7) of sitting time (or 557 minutes) for weekday and 8.3 hours (SD=5.2) of sitting time (or 511.6 minutes) for weekend. Quartile (Q) cut-points for weekday total sitting time were <380 (Q1), 380 to <500 (Q2), 500 to <630 (Q3), and >=630 (Q4) minutes. Cut-points for weekend total sitting time were <350 (Q1), 350 to <480 (Q2), 480 to <600 (Q3), and >=600 (Q4) minutes. For weekday, all three adjusted HRQoL models (i.e., physical, mental, and global health) indicated no significant differences in HRQoL indices across weekday sitting time quartiles (all p’s>.32). For weekend, all three adjusted models indicated significant associations. Differences were observed when comparing Q1 and Q4 on physical (Mdiff=2.3, p=0.05), mental (Mdiff=3.4, p<0.05), and global health (Mdiff=2.8, p<0.05). Discussion: While weekday sitting time was not significantly associated with HRQoL domains, weekend sitting time was associated with HRQoL domains when comparing the lowest and highest quartiles. In this sample, older men who reported less time sitting on the weekend also reported more optimal HRQoL indices.